“True” biometric systems began to emerge in the latter half of the twentieth century, coinciding with the emergence of computer systems, and incorporating existing forensics. The field experienced an explosion of activity in the 1990s and began to surface in everyday applications in the early 2000s.

Biometrics systems are subjectively designed, and are vulnerable to cause errors. The increasing commodification of biometrics by states and the private sector adds to the danger of loss of human value.